Web Development
Web development is a broad term for the work involved in developing a web site for the Internet (World Wide Web) or an intranet (a private network). Web development can range from developing the simplest static single page of plain text to the most complex web-based internet applications, electronic businesses, and social network services. A more comprehensive list of tasks to which web development commonly refers, may include web design, web content
development, client liaison, client-side/server-side scripting, web server and network security configuration, and e-commerce development. Among web professionals, "web development" usually refers to the main non-design aspects of building web sites: writing markup and coding.

For larger organizations and businesses, web development teams can consist of hundreds of people (web developers). Smaller organizations may only require a single permanent or contracting webmaster, or secondary assignment to related job positions such as a graphic designer and/or information systems technician. Web development may be a collaborative effort between departments rather than the domain of a designated department.

Web development as an industry
Since the commercialization of the web, web development has been a growing industry. The growth of this industry is being pushed especially by businesses wishing to sell products and services to online customers.

For tools and platforms, the public can use many open source systems to aid in web development. A popular example, the LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) stack is available for download online free of charge. This has kept the cost of learning web development to a minimum. Another contributing factor to the growth of the industry has been the rise of easy-to-use WYSIWYG web-development software, most prominently Adobe Dreamweaver, WebDev, and Microsoft Expression Studio. Using such software, virtually anyone can relatively quickly learn to develop a very basic web page. Knowledge of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) or of programming languages is still required to use such software, but the basics can be learned and implemented quickly with the help of help files, technical books, internet tutorials, or face-to-face training.

An ever growing set of tools and technologies have helped developers build more dynamic and interactive websites. Web developers now help to deliver applications as web services which were traditionally only available as applications on a desk-based computer.

Instead of running executable code on a local computer, users can interact with online applications to create new content. This has created new methods in communication [citation needed] and allowed for many opportunities to decentralize information and media distribution. Users can interact with applications from many locations, instead of being tied to a specific workstation for their application environment.


Examples of dramatic transformation in communication and commerce led by web development include e-commerce. Online auction-sites such as eBay have changed the way consumers find and purchase goods and services. Online retailers such as Amazon.comand Buy.com (among many others) have transformed the shopping and bargain-hunting experience for many consumers. Another good example of transformative communication led by web development is the blog. Web applications such as Word Press and Movable Typehave created easily-implemented blog-environments for individual web sites. The popularity of open-source content management systems such as Joomla!, Drupal, XOOPS,

and TYPO3 and enterprise content management systems such as Alfresco have extended web development's impact at online interaction and communication. Web development has also impacted personal networking and marketing. Websites are no longer simply tools for work or for commerce, but serve more broadly for communication and social networking. Websites such as Facebook and Twitter provide users with a platform to communicate and organizations with a more personal and interactive way to engage the public.

Typical Areas
Web Development can be split into many areas and a typical and basic web development hierarchy might consist of

Client Side Coding
Ajax Asynchronous JavaScript provides new methods of using JavaScript, and other languages to improve the user          experience.
Flash Adobe Flash Player is a ubiquitous browser plugin ready for RIAs. Flex 2 is also deployed to the Flash Player          (version 9+).
JavaScript JavaScript is a ubiquitous client side platform for creating and delivering rich web applications that can also          run across a wide variety of devices. It is a dialect of the scripting language ECMAScript.
JQuery Cross-browser JavaScript library designed to simplify and speed up the client-side scripting of HTML.
Microsoft Silver light Microsoft's browser plugin that enables animation, vector graphics and high-definition video           playback, programmed using XAML and .NET programming languages.
HTML5 and CSS3 Latest HTML proposed standard combined with the latest proposed standard for CSS natively          supports much of the client-side functionality provided by other frameworks such as Flash and Silver light

Looking at these items from an "umbrella approach", client side coding such as XHTML is executed and stored on a local client (in a web browser) whereas server side code is not available to a client and is executed on a web server which generates the appropriate XHTML which is then sent to the client. The nature of client side coding allows you to alter the HTML on a local client and refresh the pages with updated content (locally), web designers must bear in mind the importance and relevance to security with their server side scripts. If a server side script accepts content from a locally modified client side script, the web development of that page is poorly sanitized with relation to security.

Server Side Coding
ASP (Microsoft proprietary)
ActiveVFP (open source)
CSP, Server-Side ANSI C
ColdFusion (Adobe proprietary, formerly Macromedia, formerly Allaire)
CGI
Erlang, with Linux, Yaws, Mnesia, Erlang (LYME) solution stack
Groovy (programming language) Grails (framework)
Java, e.g. Java EE or WebObjects
Lotus Domino
Node.js
Perl, e.g. Catalyst, Dancer or Mojolicious (all open source)
PHP (open source)
Python, e.g. Django (web framework) (open source)
Real Studio Web Edition
Ruby, e.g. Ruby on Rails (open source)
Smalltalk e.g. Seaside, AIDA/Web
SSJS Server-Side JavaScript, e.g. Aptana Jaxer, Mozilla Rhino
WebDNA (WSC proprietary)
Web sphere (IBM proprietary)
.NET and .NET MVC Frameworks (Microsoft proprietary)

The World Wide Web has become a major delivery platform for web development a variety of complex and sophisticated enterprise applications in several domains. In addition to their inherent multifaceted functionality, these web applications exhibit complex behavior and place some unique demands on their usability, performance, security and ability to grow and evolve. However, a vast majority of these applications continue to be developed in an ad-hoc way, contributing to problems of usability, maintainability, quality and reliability.(1)(2) While web development can benefit from established practices from other related disciplines, it has certain distinguishing characteristics that demand special considerations. In recent years of web development there have been some developments towards addressing these problems and requirements. As an emerging discipline, web engineering actively promotes systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches towards successful development of high-quality, ubiquitously usable web-based systems and applications.(3)(4) In particular, web engineering focuses on the methodologies, techniques and tools that are the foundation of web application development and which support their design, development, evolution, and evaluation. Web application development has certain characteristics that make it different from traditional software, information system, or computer application development.

Web engineering is multidisciplinary and encompasses contributions from diverse areas: systems analysis and design, software engineering, hypermedia/hypertext engineering, requirements engineering, human-computer interaction, user interface, information engineering, information indexing and retrieval, testing, modeling and simulation, project management, and graphic design and presentation. Web engineering is neither a clone, nor a subset of software engineering, although both involve programming and software development. While web engineering uses software engineering principles, web development encompasses new approaches, methodologies, tools, techniques, and guidelines to meet the unique requirements for web-based applications.

Client Side +Server Side
Google Web Toolkit provides tools to create and maintain complex JavaScript front-end applications in Java.
Dart provides tools to create and maintain complex JavaScript front-end applications as well as supporting server-side           code in Dart (programming language).
Opa is a high-level language in which both the client and the server parts are implemented. The compiler then decides        which parts run on the client (and are translated automatically to JavaScript) and which parts run on the server. The           developer can tune those decisions with simple directives. (open source)
Pyjamas is a tool and framework for developing Ajax applications and Rich Internet Applications in python.
Tersus is a platform for the development of rich web applications by visually defining user interface, client side behavior        and server side processing. (open source) However languages like Ruby and Python are often paired with database           servers other than MySQL (the M in LAMP). Below are examples of other databases currently in wide use on the web. For           instance some developers prefer a LAPR (Linux/Apache/PostgreSQL/Ruby on Rails) setup for development.

Data Base Technology
FileMaker
Apache Derby
DB2 (IBM proprietary)
Firebird
Microsoft SQL Server
MySQL
Oracle
PostgreSQL
SQLite
Sybase
WebDNA
Redis
MongoDB
CouchDB
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